Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

SELECTING APPLICABLE PIPING ASME CODES

1. GENERAL

It is the owner’s responsibility to select the Code Section(s) that most to a proposed piping
installation. Factors to be considered by the owner include: scopes of the Code Sections; jurisdictional
requirements; and the applicability of non-B31 codes and standards. Each Code Section should be
applied as a whole to a given selection of piping. For some installations, more than one Code Section
may apply to different parts of the installation. The owner is also responsible for imposing requirements
supplementary to those of the Code to assure safe piping for the proposed installation. This article
provides guidance in the form of descriptions of the ASME B31 Code sections to assist the owner in
making the best selection.

2. ASME B31 CODES
The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists of a number of individually published Sections.
Rules found in each Section reflect the kinds of piping installations considered by the members of the
applicable Section Committee during its development. An abbreviated description of the piping
considered and the requirements for each Section follows:

B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in industrial and
          institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and district heating and cooling systems. B31.1 has
         requirements for
          • Piping for steam, water, oil, gas, air and other fluids
          • Metallic and nonmetallic piping
         • All pressures
         • Temperatures greater than -29ºC (-20ºF)


B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found in petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile,
paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related processing plants and terminals. B31.3 has
requirements for
       • Piping for all fluid services
       • Metallic and nonmetallic piping
       • All pressures
       • All temperatures

B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: piping
transporting products which are predominately liquid between facilities, plants and terminals, and within
terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations. B31.4 has requirements for
       • Piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, produced water, condensate, natural gasoline,
          natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous
          ammonia, and liquid petroleum products
       • Piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail, and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure
          reducing stations, and metering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and prover loops;
       • All pressures
       • Temperatures from ambient to 121ºC (250ºF)

B31.4 does not have requirements for auxiliary piping, such as water, air, steam, lubricating oil, gas,
and fuel.

B31.5 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components: piping and heat transfer components for
refrigerants and secondary coolants. B31.5 has requirements for
       • Refrigerant and secondary cooling piping
       • Heat transfer components such as condensers and evaporators
       • All pressures
       • Temperatures at and above -196ºC (-320ºF)

B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems: piping transporting products which are
predominately natural gas between sources and end-use services. B31.8 has requirements for
       • Onshore and offshore pipeline facilities used for the transport of gas
       • Auxiliary piping, such as water, air, steam, lubricating oil, and fuel
       • Gathering pipelines
       • Gas distribution systems
       • Piping at compressor, regulating, and metering stations
       • All pressures
       • Temperatures from -29 to 232ºC (-20 to 450ºF)

B31.9 Building Services Piping: piping typically found in institutional, commercial, and public
buildings, multi-unit residences, geothermal heating systems, and district heating and cooling systems.
B31.9 has requirements for
      • Piping with water or antifreeze solutions used for heating and cooling, steam and steam
        condensate, air, combustible liquids and other nontoxic, nonflammable fluids.
     • Compressed air, steam and steam condensate to 1035 kPa (150 psi)
     • Liquids to 2415 kPa (350 psi)
     • Steam and steam condensate from ambient to 186ºC (366ºF)
     • Other gases from ambient to -18 to 93ºC (0 to 200ºF)
     • Liquids from -18 to 121ºC (0 to 250ºF)

B31.9 also has NPS and wall thickness limits
• Carbon steel pipe - NPS 30 and 13 mm (1/2”) wall thickness
• Stainless steel pipe – NPS 12 and 13 mm (1/2”) wall thickness
• Aluminum alloy piping – NPS 12
• Copper and copper alloy piping – Standard water tube size 12
• Non-metallic piping – NPS 24
• Ductile iron piping – NPS 18

B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants
and terminals and within terminals. B31.11 has requirements for
• Piping transporting aqueous slurries of non-hazardous materials
• Piping in pumping, and regulating stations
• All pressures
• Temperatures from -29 to 121ºC (-20 to 250ºF)

B31.11 does not have requirements for auxiliary piping, such as water, air, steam, lubricating oil, gas,
and fuel.

3. OTHER PIPING CODES

Frequently, piping within a facility is subject to other codes other than those listed in para. 2. Fluid
services that are frequently subject to other codes include

• Fuel gas
• Sprinkler, deluge, carbon dioxide and other fire protection systems
• Medical and laboratory gas systems;
• Plumbing for potable hot and cold water and for sewer and drain systems.
• Nuclear power piping


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Kerteh, 23 March 2011

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