Minggu, 25 September 2011

PIPING COMPONENT : BOLTS AND NUTS

TYPES OF BOLTS

In Petro and chemical industry for flange connections actually only stud bolts are used, but in principle, two types of bolts for flange connections are available.
  1. Stud bolt
  2. Hex bolt
The stud bolt is a threaded rod with 2 heavy hexagon nuts, while the hex bolt has a head with one nut. Nuts and head are both six sided.

STUD BOLT GENERAL

Stud bolt length are defined in ASME B16.5 standard. The length in inches is equal to the effective thread length measured parallel to the axis, from the first to the first thread without the chamfers (points). First thread is defined as the intersection of the major diameter of the thread with the base of the point.
This image shows the effective thread length of stud and hex bolts.

Note: The length of metric stud bolts measured parallel to axis, is the distance from each stud bolt, including the point.
The quantity of bolts for a flange connection will be given by the number of bolt holes in a flange, diameter and length of bolts is dependent of flange type and Pressure Class of flange.
To allow the use of hydraulic tensioning equipment, larger dimension studs shall be often one diameter longer than "standard". That bolts to have plastic end cap protection.
Bolts threading are defined in ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads, (UN and UNR Thread Form).
The most common thread is a symmetrical form with a V-profile. The included angle is 60°. This form is widely used in the Unified thread (UN, UNC, UNF, UNRC, UNRF) form as the ISO / metric threads.
The advantage of a symmetrical threads is that they are easier to produce and inspect compared with non-symmetrical threads. These are typically used in general-purpose fasteners.
Thread series cover designations of diameter/pitch combinations that are measured by the number of threads per inch (TPI) applied to a single diameter.
Standard Thread Pitches
  • Coarse thread series (UNC/UNRC) is the most widely used thread system and applied in most of the screws, bolts and nuts. Coarse threads are used for threads in low strength materials such as iron, mild steel, copper and softer alloy, aluminium, et cetera. The coarse thread is also more tolerant in adverse conditions and facilitate quick assembly.
  • Fine thread series (UNF/UNRF) is commonly used in precision applications and in there where require a higher tensile strength than the coarse thread series.
  • 8 - Thread series (8UN) is the specified thread forming method for several ASTM standards including A193 B7, A193 B8/B8M, and A320. This series is mostly used for diameters one inch and above.
Hex nuts (dimensional data) are defined in ASME B18.2.2, and even as bolts the threading in ASME B1.1.
Depending on a customer specification, nuts must be both sites chamfered or with on one side a washer-face.
The height of a nut for stud bolts are the same as the diameter of the thread rod.
Image of a both sites chamfered nut.
Image of a nut with on one side a washer-face.

MARKING OF STUDBOLTS

Thread rods and nuts must be marked by the manufacturer with a unique identifier to identify the manufacturer or private label distributor, as appropriate. Below you will find a number of ASTM examples.
Marking of bolts and nuts

MATERIALS FOR STUDBOLTS

Dimensions from stud bolts are defined in the ASME B16.5 standard. The material qualities for studs are defined in the different ASTM standards, and are indicated by Grade. Frequently used grades are A193 for thread rods and A194 for the nuts.
ASTM A193 covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
ASTM A194 covers a variety of carbon, alloy, and martensitic and austenitic stainless steel nuts. These nuts are intended for high-pressure or high-temperature service, or both.
Below you will find as an example a table with materials and grades for flanges, thread rods (bolts) and nuts, arranged on design temperature, flanges, thread rods and recommended nuts.
DESIGN
TEMPERATURE
    FLANGESGRADE THREAD RODSGRADE NUTS
-195° to 102°C    ASTM A 182
 Gr. F304, F304L,    F316,
F316L, F321, F347
A320 Gr. B8 Class 2A194 Gr. 8A
-101° to -47°CASTM A 350
Gr. LF3
A 320 Gr. L7A 194 Gr. 7
-46° to -30°CASTM A 350
Gr. LF2
A 320 Gr. L7A 194 Gr. 7
-29° to 427°CASTM A 105A 193 Gr. B7A 194 Gr. 2H
428° to 537°CASTM A 182
Gr. F11, F22
A 193 Gr. B16A 194 Gr. 2H
538° to 648°CASTM A182
Gr. F11, F22
A 193 Gr. B8 Class 1A 194 Gr. 8A
649° to 815°CASTM A182
Gr. F304 H, F316 H
A 193 Gr. B8 Class 1A 194 Gr. 8A
Note: materials in the table above are being provided for guidance purposes  

from : www. wermag.org

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar